The forms and replacement of RoHS-restricted six harmful ingredients.
1.Lead: Lead is mainly found in lead-containing solders, CRT glass, light bulbs, pigments, solid lubricants, rubber, lead-acid batteries, and PVC heat stabilizers. The solder of the circuit board is a eutectic solder consisting of 63% tin and 37% lead. The melting point of this solder is 183°C. Currently, lead-free soldering techniques and processes can be used to replace conventional soldering processes. Lead-free solder materials are also different due to different soldering equipment. Manual soldering generally uses Sn-Cu, Sn-Ag or Sn-Ag-Cu, dip soldering and wave soldering using Sn-Cu, and reflow soldering using Sn-Ag and Sn-Ag-Cu.
2.Cadmium: Cadmium is mainly found in switches, springs, connectors, housings, PCBs, fuses, paints and coatings, and semiconductor photoelectric sensors. The substitution of cadmium in the field of low-voltage electrical appliances may use silver tin oxide indium oxide (AgSnO2In2O3) instead of silver cadmium oxide (AgCdO).
3.Hg: Hg is mainly found in thermostats, sensors, relays, metal etchants, batteries, preservatives, disinfectants, adhesives, etc. Rechargeable batteries such as nickel hydride and lithium ion batteries can be used instead of mercury-containing batteries, and newer thermostats and sensors that do not contain mercury can be used.
4.Chromium (hexavalent): Chromium (hexavalent) mainly exists in metal anti-corrosion coatings, pigments, rust inhibitors, corrosion inhibitors, ceramic glazes,etc. Alkaline galvanization can be used instead of chrome plating, Cr3+ can be used instead of Cr6+ to reduce the harm to the environment, or no plating can be used.
5.Polybrominated biphenyls and Polybrominated diphenyl ethers: mainly found in flame retardants, PCBs, connectors, and plastic housings. Phosphorus-based flame retardants may be used instead of brominated flame retardants, or inorganic flame retardants such as magnesium hydroxide, aluminum hydroxide, and the like may be used.
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